Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Table of Contents

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that occur when the body makes too many white or red blood cells, or platelets. This overproduction of blood cells in the bone marrow can create problems for blood flow and lead to various symptoms. MPNs were called myeloproliferative diseases until 2008 when the World Health Organization reclassified them as cancers and renamed them myeloproliferative neoplasms.

There are 3 main types of MPNs:

  • Polycythemia vera (PV)
  • Essential thrombocythemia (ET) 
  • Myelofibrosis (MF)

Certain leukemias, including chronic myelogenous leukemia, are also now considered myeloproliferative neoplasms. Although MPNs can pose health risks, people with these conditions often live for many years after diagnosis. The choice of treatment and how well it works depends largely on the type of MPN.


These MPN resources are available in Spanish, Korean, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Vietnamese.

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Duration: 2 min

What Are MPNs?

This video will help you understand what MPNs (myeloproliferative neoplasms) are, symptoms to look for, and possible treatment options.  Have a concern of your own? Please call our Cancer Support Helpline to talk with an experienced…

Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare type of blood cancer. PV occurs when the body makes too many red blood cells. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen through the body. Too many can cause the blood to become thicker and move more slowly. People with polycythemia vera sometimes have too many white blood cells and platelets as well.

Get Details About Risk Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment for PV


Essential Thrombocythemia

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare type of blood cancer. ET occurs when the body makes too many platelets, the part of the blood needed for clotting. Researchers are still trying to understand the causes of ET. ET is one of 3 MPNs. There is no cure for ET but people with the disease often live normal lives.

Get Details About Risk factors, Diagnosis & Treatment for ET



Since 2010, myelofibrosis (MF) has been considered a form of cancer. It is one of the three most common myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) rare blood diseases that develop when the bone marrow makes too many blood cells. In myelofibrosis, scar tissue forms inside the bone marrow. Primary myelofibrosis develops on its own. Secondary myelofibrosis can result from another bone marrow disorder (such as polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia). In either case, the body is not able to produce blood cells normally.

Get Details About Risk Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment for MF

Duration: 3 min

Living With MPNs: Start Exercising

Exercise provides an energy boost — among other benefits — as Serena explains in this video.

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Shining the Light on MPNs

View our free educational presentations designed to educate, support, and empower MPN patients and their families.

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Talk to a Social Worker

Advocating for yourself is important, but it can also be difficult at times. An oncology social worker can be a useful ally.

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MPN Unlocked

Find a collection of MPN resources developed under the auspices of Cancer Support Community along with several partner advocacy organizations. 

Find Additional MPN Resources