Risk Factors/Signs and Symptoms

Research is increasing regarding what we know about penile cancer. Scientists are learning more about its causes.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase the risk of developing penile cancer.

Circumcision may help prevent infection with the HPV. A circumcision is an operation in which the doctor removes part or all of the foreskin from the penis. Many boys are circumcised shortly after birth. Men who were not circumcised at birth may have a higher risk of developing penile cancer.

Other risk factors for penile cancer include:

Age - Being age 60 or older

Phimosis - A condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back over the glans

Hygiene - Having poor personal hygiene

Sex - Having many sexual partners.

Tobacco - Using tobacco products.

Signs and Symptoms

These and other symptoms may be caused by penile cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:

Redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis.

A lump on the penis

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