Stages

If testicular cancer is diagnosed, the doctor needs to know the stage, or extent, of the disease to plan the best treatment. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread, and if so, to what parts of the body.

Stages of Testicular Cancer

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) - In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I - In stage I, cancer has formed. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy is done.

In stage IA -  Cancer is in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle. All tumor marker levels are normal.

In stage IB - Cancer is in the testicle and the epididymis and has spread to the blood vessels or lymph vessels in the testicle
or
has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle
or
is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood vessels or lymph vessels of the testicle.
All tumor marker levels are normal.

In stage IS -  Cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum and either:
all tumor marker levels are slightly above normal
or
one or more tumor marker levels are moderately above normal or high.

Stage II - Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy is done.

In stage IIA - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen, none larger than 2 centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

In stage IIB - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and either has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen, at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 centimeters, but none are larger than 5 centimeters or has spread to more than 5 lymph nodes; the lymph nodes are not larger than 5 centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

In stage IIC - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than 5 centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

Stage III - Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy is done.

In stage IIIA - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs. Tumor marker levels may range from normal to slightly above normal.

In stage IIIB - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes, or to the lungs. The level of one or more tumor markers is moderately above normal.

In stage IIIC - Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen, to distant lymph nodes, or to the lungs. The level of one or more tumor markers is high.
or
Cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen and has not spread to distant lymph nodes or the lung but has spread to other parts of the body. Tumor marker levels may range from normal to high.

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