Risk Factors/Signs and Symptoms

Research is increasing regarding what we know about Prostate Cancer. Scientists are learning more about its causes. Following are common risk factors for the disease:

Age - Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. Most men with prostate cancer are over 65 and the disease is rare in men under 45.

Family History - A patient’s risk factor is higher if his father, brother, or son had prostate cancer.

Race - Prostate cancer is more common among black men than white or Hispanic/Latino men. It's less common among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native men.

Prostate Changes - Men with cells called high-grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) may be at an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Certain Genome Changes - Researchers have found certain chromosomes linked to the risk of prostate cancer. According to recent studies, if a man has a genetic change in one or more of these chromosomes, the risk of prostate cancer may be increased. Other studies have shown an elevated risk of prostate cancer among men with changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Signs and Symptoms

Early prostate cancer often causes no symptoms. Problems with urinating could be a sign of advanced prostate cancer, but often not. Proven symptoms of advanced prostate cancer are:


Loss of bladder and/or bowel control 

Pain in the spine, hips, ribs, or other bones 

Urinary Problems such as not being able to pass urine, having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow, needing to urinate often, weak flow of urine or urine flow that starts and stops and pain or burning during urination 

Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet

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