Different types of treatment are available for patients with oropharngeal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. (A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer)
Your treatment options depend on the stage of cancer, your overall health and your preferences about treatment. In metastatic disease, the location and extent of the oropharyngeal cancer is also an important consideration.
You do not have to rush to make a decision, so consider the options carefully. Research shows that cancer survivors of all educational levels and backgrounds can have a hard time communicating with their health care team. One of the best ways to improve communication with your health care team is to prepare your visits so that you can best make use of the time.
A treatment plan is a way to deal with both the short and long term goals of managing your oropharyngeal cancer. There are several treatment options for oropharyngeal cancer, depending on the cancer stage and the patient’s age and general health. Patients have time for second opinions and to talk through all of their options with their doctors and develop a treatment plan that best fits their needs.
Surgery is a common treatment for oropharyngeal cancer. Cancers of the oropharynx often spread to the lymph nodes in the neck. Depending on the stage and exact location of the cancer, it may be necessary to remove these lymph nodes by an operation called a neck or lymph node dissection.There are several types of neck dissection procedures, and they differ in how much tissue is removed from the neck.
Partial or Selective Neck Dissection
- only a few lymph nodes are removed
Modified Radical Neck Dissection
- most lymph nodes on one side of the neck between the jaw bone and collarbone and some muscle and nerve tissue are removed
Radical Neck Dissection
- Nearly all nodes on one side and muscles, nerves and veins are removed
Radiation Therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy
). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.